An ongoing, thirty-year pan-cultural folk, ritual, and shamanic performance research and documentation project. The goal is to 1) investigate and document vanishing traditions, and 2) articulate and promote an alternative, earth-centric performance expression for our contemporary world. The project's ambition is to offer a new form of indigenous performance, founded in traditional expressions and shaped in response to a globalizing world threatened with environmental collapse. Appreciating and re-imagining the wisdom and expressions of those who have lived traditionally with their indigenous place as to create a new/old way of being with the earth. We are all becoming indigenous again.
Riccio emphasizes that he is not an anthropologist by training, but when he is working with a theatre based on cultural tradition he often applies anthropological methods. Indigenous cultures are essentially oral and when put into written form only a small part of it is conserved. People, however, have much more knowledge which is about to disappear if no one becomes interested in it.
Kumppani Magazine, Finland
Current Research Project
Miao and Tujia, Xiangxi Autonomous Perfecture, Southwest China
A demonstration of Badai powers by Shi Bang Wu, China.
From and interview...
Shi: I am drawing in the water action, its power comes from the master Lao Zi the master of all Taoism. I write the sides characters in the water on the table. In the process of the magical words transform the water becoming the “Law Water” or magic water. Riccio: How does the water become magical? Shi: Magical words taught him from his teacher…you must decide to accept the words on special ritual step by step the words are given.
Riccio: You are well traveled and have demonstrated on TV and around the country. Why do you do this?
Shi: I am also a teacher—travel and showing others is the metamorphosis of learning—just like a tree. If the Tree grows from branches new branches—you learn from other branches not from your family. I learn and I teach.
Riccio: Who taught you?
Shi: I Learned from my father—I learned from his trunk. At the trunk is where it is more real, more magic—at the branches the magic is not as strong.
Riccio: How do you maintain your power?
Shi: I get up very early to recite the magical words to learn how to make and hold the water magic.
Riccio: How long did it take you to be initiated as a Badai?
Shi: It was twenty-one days. But this was after long study with my father. I was about twenty years old when I started with my studies.
Riccio: Did you want to become a healer or were called?
Shi: The spirits called me. The spirits know my family well. For many generations, my grand and great grand fathers, and beyond were healers. One son only each generation is chosen to carry this family forward. I was chosen. Only the most honest and dutiful is chosen.
Riccio: How do you eat the water bowl?
Shi: If the spirits are with you must be able to do it! You must bite the bowl without hesitation—it is the test of the gods.
Riccio: Now you are training others. If I wanted to become your student what would you tell me?
Shi: There are pre-conditions before we can begin. You must agree with master and swear to your master to tell him all the things you can and cannot do. You must kowtow to the master. And as your master I must judge you honestly and watch and have a good heart—to avoid evil or just do it for money. If the master and student follow this way then the student will become a healer and begin their own practice.
Riccio: What is the purpose of the rice bowl on the table with incense and money sticking in it?
Shi: It is my offering to the gods. When I swallow the bowl fragments that I am able to cure people. When I eat the bowl I begin to have a sixth sense and to see sickness. but this sensation not always.
Riccio: Do you go into trance?
Shi: No, I do not use trance—I eat the bowl and am connected with the gods and a vision comes and then I visit the people I saw.
Riccio: Then what hapapens?
Shi: Sometimes it is difficult to tell if a sickness is spiritual. But I see that it is the healing ritual goes quickly—and I have a good success rate. The sickness is then evaporated into the air.
Miao Spirit Mediums
Performance Ethnography Projects
N'Cwala, Ngoni, Zambia-Malawi
Therukoothu Performances Tamil, South India
!Xuu and Khwe Bushmen, South Africa-Namibia
Oral History Recording Project--See Shamanism Page for Performance Project
Gomez's telling of the "Two Stones" brought the group to life. Everyone wanted to tell the story as they remembered it. We agreed that "Two Stones" would be the basis of our performance. With a large artist's pad at the center, the group gathered in a circle. The drawing of the story and the agreement to perform the story suddenly gave our work an objective, structure, and immediacy that was satisfying to the pragmatic Bushmen. The drawing and the narrative also provided us with a medium by which we could directly communicate with one another, without language or a translator. After many drawings and story sessions an agreed upon telling evolved.
In the desert there are two stones.
They are by themselves out in the open
Surrounded by grass and small bushes.
The stones are called ~ (n) Whatsu.
‘That means people come out of here.’
They are like two houses with a path.
Both have big holes in them like the entrance to a hut.
The tall stone is a man and the short one is a woman...(continues)
Christian Orthodox Ritual
Riccio has taken regional theatre world distances. Mr. Riccio is committed to exploring and developing indigenous theatre worldwide, helping native cultures create their own theatre, where the emphasis is on the experimental, in sharp contrast with traditional Western theatre, which affirms Western values.
Society of Stage Director and Choreographers
These semi-subterranean structures had several tiers of hide-covered benches that created a three-sided or theatre-in-the-round stage setting. During some performances a central fire pit would throw off a powerful light and produce large and looming shadows on the soot covered driftwood, hide and earth structure. During some performances, when the fire pit was covered with planks, seal oil lamps provided an equally dramatic source of light. There were two tunnel entrances used to keep the arctic weather out, one entrance was for general public use the other tunnel entrance was connected to the fire pit and provided a draft for the fire. Through the fire pit entrance, performers and shamans would enter, for it was thought that the fire pit tunnel was a pathway to the lower world. Spectacular entrances were made from the skylight or smoke hole, thought to be an entrance from the upper world. The upper and lower worlds were thought to be places where certain spirits dwelled, and where spirits were aligned more with the elements and hierarchy rather than with the heaven and hell connotations of Christianity. In this way the kashim, or community house, became a living metaphor. The community, gathered tightly together in an earth structure, was acted upon by the spirits from above, below and within the shadows of the fire flames. (Curtis, 1930:9-12)
Inuipiq Kiviq, 2017, Barrow, Alaska. Photos: Bill Hess
The theatre of the Alaskan Eskimo was a theatre of visions and myths and functioned in a time when the world was a shroud of mystery filled with spirits. It was a theatre tradition that originated in the time before time. It was a time when humans could easily transform into animals and animals into humans. When myths were formulating the earth's shape and its ways. A millennium before Aristotle's Poetics, this was a theatre of the earth, for those who lived by, off of and with the earth. And like the earth was practiced as a dynamically changing medium of performance expression. The theatre of the Alaskan Eskimo was a theatre of the land, its elements and the animals and humans that inhabited that reality. It was a theatre interlinked to its culture as only aboriginal performance can be; separate but inseparable, a part, but of the whole.
!Xuu Bushman drawing of the sun,
from a workshop and oral history project